INTRODUCTION
• Submission of manuscripts
• Language
• Ethics
• Patient details
• Conflict of Interest
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• Submission declaration and verification
• Use of inclusive language
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Referee recommendations and negative preference
PREPARATION
• Queries
• Article Types
• Manuscript format
• Peer review
• Artwork
• Tables
• Supplementary material
• Research data
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Online proof correction
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES




Brain & Development is aimed to promote clinical child neurology and developmental neuroscience. Submissions considered for publication to Brain & Development are received on the understanding that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

For information on Ethical guidelines for journal publication see https://www.elsevier.com/authors/policies-and-guidelines.

Submission of manuscripts

Brain & Development now proceeds totally online via an online submission system. In case you do not have an internet connection, please contact the Editor-in-Chief for alternative instructions. By accessing the online submission via Elsevier Editorial System, https://www.editorialmanager.com/BRADEV you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. When submitting a manuscript online, authors need to provide an electronic version of their manuscript and any accompanying figures and tables.

The journal is dedicated to the field of clinical child neurology and related neuroscience, and covers topics such as physiological and pathological brain development, neurodevelopmental disorders, cerebral palsy, genetic and metabolic disorders of the nervous system, epilepsy and seizure disorders, movement disorders, fetal and neonatal neurology, infectious and inflammatory disorders of the nervous system, neuromuscular disorders, and other neurologic diseases of infants and children.

The author should select from a list of scientific classifications, which will be used to help the editors select reviewers with appropriate expertise, and an article type for their manuscript. Once the uploading is done, the system automatically generates an electronic (PDF) proof, which is then used for reviewing. All correspondence, including the Editor's decision and request for revisions, will be processed through the system and will reach the corresponding author by e-mail.

Once a manuscript has successfully been submitted via the online submission system authors may track the status of their manuscript using the online submission system (details will be provided by e-mail). If your manuscript is accepted by the journal, subsequent tracking facilities are available on Elsevier's Author Gateway, using the unique reference number provided by Elsevier and corresponding author name (details will be provided by e-mail).

For revisions, your revised manuscript should be submitted within 90 days, failing which it will be expired automatically. If you would require more than 90 days for submitting the revision, please submit as a new submission.

Authors may send queries concerning the submission process or journal procedures to the Central Editorial Office: Katsuhiro Kobayashi, Editor-in-Chief: [email protected].

For further details on how to submit online, please visit our Support Center.

Please prepare manuscripts in conformance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (http://www.icmje.org/urm_main.html).

Language

Only English articles will be accepted. Authors whose native language is not English should enlist the help of colleagues who are proficient in scientific English.

Please write your text in clear and grammatical English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these) and authors should conform to the general style of the journal and the specific instructions listed below. Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission please visit https://www.elsevier.com/languagepolishing for more information. Please note Elsevier neither endorses nor takes responsibility for any products, goods or services offered by outside vendors through our services or in any advertising.

Manuscripts that are written in poor English and/or not properly prepared will be returned to the authors without review, since it is not feasible for the Editors to undertake extensive revision or rewriting of manuscripts submitted.

Drugs should be referred to using international non-proprietary (generic) names. All acronyms should be spelled out at the first usage except for MRI, CT, EEG, IQ, and PCR. The authors are expected to round to the nearest integer when they calculate percentages for cases less than 100 (e.g., 63.5% to 64%). To describe sequence variants (DNA, RNA and protein), authors should follow current recommendations of the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS).

Ethics

For all manuscripts dealing with experimental work involving human subjects, specify that informed consent was obtained following a full explanation of the procedure(s) undertaken. Patients should be referred to by number; do not use real names, initials or hospital numbers. Also, the design of special scientific research (e.g. genetic research and regenerative medicine) in human diseases or of animal experiments should be approved by the ethical committee of the institution. Animal experiments must conform to guidelines on animal care and use currently applied in the country of origin. This must be stated at the last part of Method section with a heading "Ethics" in the article. The institutional approval may not be required for genetic testing primarily for a diagnostic purpose.

Patient details

Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), personal details of patients included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission. For further information see https://www.elsevier.com/patientphotographs.

Conflict of Interest

Based on the detailed enforcement regulation of the guideline for Conflict of Interest's management in conducting clinical research, all authors must indicate whether or not they have a financial relationship with the organization that sponsored the research. (They should also state that they agree to allow the journal to review their data if requested.)
The manuscript must be accompanied by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) form for Disclosure of Interests. This form can be obtained from here. At the time of submission, please be sure to attach this form also the submitting author must include a COI statement in the body of the manuscript. The statement will describe all the authors' relationships with companies that may have a financial interest in the information contained in the manuscript. This information should be provided under the heading titled ' Conflict of Interest Disclosures,' which should appear after the 'Acknowledgements' section and before the 'References' section. The absence of any interest to disclose must also be stated as "The authors declare no competing interests."

Authorship

All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: 1) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; 2) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 3) Final approval of the version to be published; 4) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
The statement that all authors meet the above ICMJE authorship criteria must be provided under the heading titled 'Author Contributions,' which should appear after the text and before the 'References' section.
In accordance with ICMJE recommendations, individuals who provided help, but do not meet the authorship requirement (e.g., medical writers or statistical analysts) must be mentioned in the Acknowledgements section.
(Example: Contributor A was responsible for the organization and coordination of the trial. B was the chief investigator and responsible for the data analysis. A, B, C, D, and E developed the trial design. All authors contributed to the writing of the final manuscript. All members of the xxx Study Team contributed to the management or administration of the trial.)

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in the author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify compliance, your article may be checked by Crossref Similarity Check and other originality or duplicate checking software.

Preprints

Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Referee recommendations and negative preference

To help ensure that papers are reviewed by the most suitable referees, authors may provide a list of three potential referees (including names, addresses, fax and e-mail) who do not have conflict of interest in the research being submitted. The Editors reserve the right to choose different referees from the ones suggested. You may also suggest reviewers you do not want to review your manuscript, but please state your reasons for doing so.




Queries

For questions about the editorial process (including the status of manuscripts under review) or for technical support on submissions, please visit our Support Center.

Article Types

Original Articles
These may describe original clinical or laboratory research. The main text of original articles should generally be in the format of: Structured Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials/Subjects, Methods, Results and Discussion. Authors are reminded that articles should be clear and concise and non-standard abbreviations avoided. Please provide approximately 250 words structured abstract and 3-9 keywords separately. Up to 50 references are recommended.

Review Articles
Reviews may concern either clinical or laboratory scientific topics. Relatively brief reviews of between 2,500 and 3,000 words are particularly welcome. Longer reviews are acceptable when justified by topic and comprehensiveness. The format of the main text is same as above original articles.

Case Reports
A case report should describe a new disease, or confirmation of a rare or new disease; a new insight into pathogenesis, etiology, diagnosis, or treatment; or a new finding associated with a currently known disease. A report of special scientific investigation, even in a single patient, will be regarded as an original article. The length should ordinarily be less than 1,500 words, with no more than a total of 3 tables and figures and 20 references. This can be exceeded only when justified by extensive special studies. The format of the main text of case reports is also same as original articles.

Letters to the Editor
These should be up to 300 words in length, and should be submitted in response to material published in the journal to make small clinical points or to introduce a point of view. They can be accompanied by up to 5 references but no illustrations. Letters do not carry an abstract.

Proceedings of Meetings
Full manuscripts or abstracts of papers presented at scientific meetings shall be considered for publication as Proceedings in the form either of a supplementary volume, a special issue, or as a section in an issue. Publication will be at the discretion of the editors. Printing costs should be borne by the contributor.

As an approximate guide to authors judging the length of their paper, the following estimation may be used: 3 typewritten A4 pages = 1 printed page; 3 'average' figures + legends = 1 printed page; 3 'average' tables = 1 printed page; 35 references = 1 printed page.

Manuscript format

The manuscript should be set out with the following sections:

(i) Title page (title taking up to 200 spaces; full names and affiliations of all cited authors with the surname in uppercase letters; corresponding author's name, full mailing address, fax number, and email address; present address of authors where appropriate); See concrete examples See concrete examples
(ii) Structured abstract and 3-9 key words;
(iii) Text and acknowledgments;
(iv) Author Contributions;
(v) Conflict of Interest Disclosures;
(vi) References; (vii) Figure legends;
(viii) Tables with their legends.

Keywords

Effective and apt keywords will help others find your article quickly and accurately.

References

Text: References to literature must be indicated by Arabic numerals in square brackets which run consecutively through the paper. Where a reference is cited more than once in the text the same number should be used each time.
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

Reference style should follow the standards summarized in the NLM's ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, also known as Vancouver Style: Sample References webpage and detailed in the NLM's Citing Medicine, 2nd edition.

In your reference list, you should:
  • List all authors or editors, but if there are more than six authors, list the first six authors followed by "et al." (with a full stop).
  • Use Roman text for article titles and written precisely as it appears in work cited, ending with a full stop.
  • Abbreviate the journal name according to common usage.
  • Provide the year of publication followed by a semicolon, the volume number followed by a colon, and the page range (or article number). Omit the month, and day of publication. The issue number may be omitted.
  • For an electronic publication ahead of print (article in press), use "in press" instead of the volume number and page range (or article number), followed by the digital object identifier (DOI), as in the example listed below.
Examples of journals


Published articles
[1] Okanishi T, Saito Y, Ohno K. Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS). Brain Dev 2009;31:92-3.
[2] Barnerias C, Boddaert N, Pascale G, Isabelle D, Pannier LH, Dulac O, et al. Unusual magnetic resonance imaging features in Menkes disease. Brain Dev 2008;30:489-92.


Electronic publication ahead of print
[3] Gunji A, Inagaki M, Inoue Y, Takeshima Y, Kaga M. Event-related potentials of self-face recognition in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Brain Dev 2009, in press. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2008.04.011.

Journal article in Japanese
[4] Ogawa A, Hamamoto K, Hirose S, Fujikawa M, Mitsudome A. Sympathetic skin response in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. No To Hattatsu (Tokyo) 2007;39:347-50. Japanese.

Examples of books and other monographs

Personal author(s)
[5] Aicardi J. Diseases of the Nervous System in Childhood. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2009.

Editor(s), compiler(s)
[6] Armstrong DL, Halliday W, Hawkings C, Takashima S, editors. Pediatric Neuropathology: A Text-Atlas. New York: Springer; 2007

Chapter in a book
[7] Sarnat HB. Cerebral plasticity in embryological development. In: Fukuyama Y, Suzuki Y, Kamoshita S, Casaer P, editors. Fetal and perinatal neurology. Basel: Karger; 1992. p. 118-31.

Japanese book
[8] Igarashi T, Ishii M, Takida J, Hiraiwa M, Mizuguchi M, Yokota S, editors. Evidence-based Pediatrics 2007-2008. Tokyo: Chugai-Igakusha; 2007. Japanese.

Others

Refer to "NLM's International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals: Sample References webpage": https://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html

Peer review

This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Artwork

Electronic artwork

General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Figure captions

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version. Material that should not be published (e.g. Institutional Review Board [IRB] Approval, etc.) is to be designated as Author Agreement as the file type and NOT as e-Component at submission.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking

If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Data statement

To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.




Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

From 2023 publication, the corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.




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Last update April 2022