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Developmental and aging changes in the expression of amyloid precursor protein in down syndrome brains

  • Yasuhiro Arai
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Tel.: +81 423 461713; fax: +81 423 461743.
    Affiliations
    Department of Mental Retardation and Birth Defect Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187,Japan
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  • Arata Suzuki
    Affiliations
    Department of Mental Retardation and Birth Defect Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187,Japan
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  • Masashi Mizuguchi
    Affiliations
    Department of Mental Retardation and Birth Defect Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187,Japan
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  • Sachio Takashima
    Affiliations
    Department of Mental Retardation and Birth Defect Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187,Japan
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      Abstract

      We studied immunohistochemically the expression of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the frontal lobes of 18 Down syndrome (DS) patients (20 gestation weeks (GW) to 50 years) and 15 controls (17 GW to 50 years) using six purified antibodies against the secretory forms (N-terminal, N-Amy and Amy540), the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor (KPI) domain, residues 1–28 of β protein (Affi28), and the car☐yl-terminal fragment (Ac) of APP. In the cortex of fetuses, neonates and infants, immunoreactivity for N-Amy and Ac was observed in both neurons and glial cells, and that for Affi28 in glial cells in the subpial layer in both DS patients and controls suggesting the functioning role of APP as a growth factor. This immunoreactivity disappeared in childhood and reappeared in adulthood in only DS patients. The earlier reappearance of those in DS patients from a young adult age than in normal controls may result from a gene dosage effect, since APP is encoded on chromosome 21. The N-Amy, Amy540, Affi28 and Ac immunoreactivity in glial cells in the developing white matter in the both DS patients and controls may be associated with myelination glia. Immunoreactivity for KPI was noted on the tunica media of the arteries from the neonatal period to adulthood in only DS patients. In senile plaques in DS patients, N-terminal and Affi28 immunoreactivity became detectable at the age of 32 years. N-terminal immunoreactivity in the senile plaques was noted along the periphery of the senile plaques, while that for Affi28 was around the amyloid core. Thus, each fragment of APP exhibited a different localization and time course of immunohistochemical expression. The results indicated that APP plays a role in neuronal development and that its earlier reappearance in adult DS patients is associated with the regeneration process related to aging.

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