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Neurological prognostic factors for human herpes virus 6/7-associated acute encephalopathy in children: A single-center study

      Abstract

      Aim

      To identify prognostic factors for severe neurological sequelae and epileptic seizures in children with human herpes virus (HHV) 6/7-associated acute encephalopathy (AE).

      Methods

      We retrospectively studied pediatric cases of HHV6/7-associated AE between April 2011 and March 2021. Neurological sequelae were assessed using the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category scale (PCPC) and the presence of epileptic seizures 1 year after onset. We investigated the prognostic factors between the non-severe sequelae group (PCPC scores ≤ 2) and severe sequelae group (PCPC scores ≥ 3) in patients without severe neurological complications before onset.

      Results

      Forty patients, ranging from 4 to 95 months old, were included. AE with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion were the most common types of encephalopathy (n = 28). Among the 36 patients evaluated neurological sequelae, 17, nine, eight, and two were categorized as PCPC 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Epileptic seizures were observed in nine patients. In the severe sequelae group, significantly more cases with coma in the acute phase and thalamic lesions on MRI and higher serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase levels were observed. Multivariate analysis showed a significant between-group difference in the rate of coma (p = 0.0405). Patients with epileptic seizures had a higher rate of coma and thalamic lesions and higher serum ALT and urinary beta 2-microglobulin levels, but there was no significant difference in the multivariate analysis.

      Conclusions

      In HHV6/7-associated AE, coma was a significant prognostic factor for severe neurological sequelae.

      Keywords

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