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Drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy due to middle fossa meningoencephalocele in a child: A surgical case report

Published:September 14, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2022.08.008

      Abstract

      Background

      Meningoencephalocele (ME) of the temporal lobe through a bone defect in the middle cranial fossa is a rare known cause of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). ME-induced drug-resistant TLE has been described in adults; however, its incidence in children is very rare.

      Case report

      A 7-year-old girl presented at our hospital with brief episodes of impaired consciousness and enuresis. Initial brain MRI results were interpreted as normal. Her seizures could not be controlled even with multiple anti-seizure medications. She was diagnosed with drug-resistant TLE, which presented with prolonged impaired awareness seizures for 30–60 s and secondary bilateral tonic seizures. At 9 years of age, brain MRI revealed a left temporal anteroinferior ME with a congenital bone defect in the left middle cranial fossa. She was referred for presurgical epilepsy evaluation. Long-term video electroencephalography (EEG) failed to reveal regional abnormality in the left temporal lobe; invasive evaluation using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) was thus indicated.
      Ictal onset SEEG was identified in the temporal pole near the ME which was rapidly propagated to the mesial temporal structures and other cortical regions. The left temporal pole including the ME was micro-surgically disconnected while preserving the hippocampus and amygdala. The patient’s seizures have been completely controlled for 1 year and 6 months post-operatively.

      Conclusion

      SEEG revealed rapid propagation of ictal activity in this patient’s case, confirming that the ME was epileptogenic. Since the majority of patients with refractory epilepsy caused by ME have favorable postoperative seizure outcomes, it is important to carefully check for ME in drug-resistant TLE patients with apparently normal MRI.

      Keywords

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