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An exploratory study to identify neonatal arterial ischemic stroke: A single-center study

Published:September 02, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2022.08.005

      Abstract

      Background

      Neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) presents as seizures, including convulsions, subtle seizures, and apnea, and most patients experience neurological sequelae. Diagnosis is often delayed owing to low test sensitivity. The present study aimed to identify the early clinical diagnostic factors for NAIS in neonates with seizures.

      Methods

      The present study included 54 patients born at ≥36 weeks of gestation during the last 15 years who presented to the neonatal intensive care unit with neonatal seizures and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 6 of whom were diagnosed with NAIS. Maternal background, clinical characteristics, and transcranial pulsed Doppler sonography results were retrospectively reviewed.

      Results

      Of the 24 patients who presented with convulsions or subtle seizures, 3 (13%) were diagnosed with NAIS and 3 of 30 patients (10%) presented with apnea. Maternal premature ventricular contraction complications were higher in the NAIS group than in the non-NAIS group (p = 0.01). NAIS group showed lower mean middle cerebral artery (MCA) resistance index (RI) was lower the non-NAIS group (p = 0.009), while the left–right RI difference (p = 0.019), mean MCA blood velocity (MnV; p = 0.04), and left–right MnV difference (p < 0.001) in cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFVs) were higher in the NAIS group.

      Conclusions

      Our results revealed that maternal arrhythmia may be a diagnostic factor for NAIS in neonates with seizures. Early brain MRI is essential in neonates with seizures and findings of low MCA-RI, high MCA-MnV, or high left–right difference in CBFVs to distinguish between NAIS and non-NAIS.

      Keywords

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