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A nationwide survey of monocarboxylate transporter 8 deficiency in Japan: Its incidence, clinical course, MRI and laboratory findings

      Abstract

      Background

      Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) deficiency is an X-linked recessive developmental disorder characterized by initially marked truncal hypotonia, later athetotic posturing, and severe intellectual disability caused by mutations in SLC16A2, which is responsible for the transport of triiodothyronine (T3) into neurons. We conducted a nationwide survey of patients with MCT8 deficiency to clarify their current status.

      Methods

      Primary survey: In 2016–2017, we assessed the number of patients diagnosed with MCT8 deficiency from 1027 hospitals. Secondary survey: in 2017–2018, we sent case surveys to 31 hospitals (45 cases of genetic diagnosis), who responded in the primary survey. We asked for: 1) perinatal history, 2) developmental history, 3) head MRI findings, 4) neurophysiological findings, 5) thyroid function tests, and 5) genetic test findings.

      Results

      We estimated the prevalence of MCT8 deficiency to be 1 in 1,890,000 and the incidence of MCT8 deficiency per million births to be 2.12 (95 % CI: 0.99–3.25). All patients showed severe psychomotor retardation, and none were able to walk or speak. The significantly higher value of the free T3/free T4 (fT3/fT4) ratio found in our study can be a simple and useful diagnostic biomarker (Our value 11.60 ± 4.14 vs control 3.03 ± 0.38). Initial white matter signal abnormalities on head MRI showed recovery, but somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) showed no improvement, suggesting that the patient remained dysfunctional.

      Conclusion

      For early diagnosis, including in mild cases, it might be important to consider the clinical course, early head MRI, SEP, and fT3/fT4 ratio.

      Keywords

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