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A case of ALG11-congenital disorders of glycosylation diagnosed by post-mortem whole exome sequencing

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are inherited inborn errors of metabolism due to abnormal protein and lipid glycosylation that present with multi-systemic manifestations. The heterogeneity of CDG poses a serious diagnostic challenge; therefore, whole-exome sequencing (WES), which plays an increasingly important role in the molecular diagnosis of CDG, is used for examining patients with CDG.

      Case report

      We report the case of a two-month-old male patient who developed developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) with intractable seizures and microcephaly. EEG demonstrated a suppression-burst (S-B) pattern, and MRI showed delayed myelination and progressive atrophic changes. Although CDG was clinically suspected, serum transferrin isoelectric focusing analysis appeared to be normal. The patient died by six years of age. Postmortem WES performed approximately 20 years after the patient’s death revealed homozygous variants in ALG11 (NM_001004127.3: c.935A > C, p.Glu312Ala), and the patient was diagnosed with ALG11-CDG.

      Conclusion

      We present a case of the patient with ALG11-CDG diagnosed using post-mortem WES. The EEG revealed a S-B pattern that indicated severely drug-resistant DEE, which was associated with poor prognosis. If a CDG is suspected, WES should be considered.

      Keywords

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