Original article| Volume 44, ISSUE 9, P595-604, October 2022

The Japanese version of the children’s sleep habits questionnaire (CSHQ-J): A validation study and influencing factors



      This study aimed to validate the Japanese version of the Child’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ-J) and identify which factors affect the CHSQ-J total score.


      The participants were 3158 children (aged 4–12 years) and their parent/guardian, as community samples from large, medium-sized, and small cities. Each parent/guardian filled in the questionnaire set (CSHQ-J, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, demographic data: family structure, sleep environment, participants’ present illness, and economic information); we also collected 51 clinical samples from our facility to calculate the cutoff score. According to the age of the participants in the original CSHQ (4–10 years), validation was assessed statistically via exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and internal consistency (verified by Cronbach’s α). Multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors affecting the CSHQ-J total score.


      We received responses from 2687 participants (response rate: 85%) and analyzed 1688 participants who were the age of the original CSHQ participants. The alpha coefficients of each subscale of the CSHQ-J ranged from 0.43 to 0.68. The cutoff score was 48 (sensitivity: 0.69, specificity: 0.79). The confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses did not converge. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors that significantly influenced the CSHQ-J total score were co-sleeping, supplemental sleep, and child’s age. Present illness, especially adenoids, also significantly influenced CSHQ total score.


      The CSHQ-J has adequate internal consistency and is useful for screening for pediatric sleep disorders. Supplemental sleep, habit of co-sleeping, and child’s age should be considered when using the CSHQ-J as a screening tool for sleep problems in children.


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