AICA (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide) ribosiduria is an inborn error in purine biosynthesis caused due to biallelic pathogenic variants in the 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide-formyltransferase/imp cyclohydrolase (ATIC) gene located on chromosome 2q35. ATIC codes for a bifunctional enzyme, AICAR transformylase and inosine monophosphate (IMP) cyclohydrolase, which catalyse the last two steps of de novo purine synthesis. This disorder has been previously reported in only 4 cases worldwide, and herein, we report the first from India.
The proband presented with global developmental delay, developmental hip dysplasia (DDH), acyanotic heart disease and nystagmoid eye movements. Whole exome sequencing (WES) identified compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in the ATIC. A novel splice site variant; c.1321-2A > G and a previously reported missense variant; c.1277A > G (p.Lys426Arg) were identified. Segregation analysis of parents showed the father to be a heterozygous carrier for the splice site variant and the mother, a heterozygous carrier for the missense variant.
This case of a rare genetic disorder of purine biosynthesis of ATIC deficiency is the first case reported from India. Early diagnosis lead to early interventional therapy and genetic counselling.
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Published online: May 27, 2022
Accepted: May 12, 2022
Received in revised form: May 3, 2022
Received: November 5, 2021
© 2022 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.