Long-term changes in electroencephalogram findings in a girl with a nonsense SMC1A variant: A case report



      Pathogenic truncating variants in SMC1A, which is located on chromosome Xp11.2, are known to cause infantile-onset epilepsy and severe intellectual disability in girls. Several studies have reported a correlation between SMC1A truncations and seizure clustering; however, the associated electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns remain largely unknown.

      Case presentation

      We investigated an 12-year-old girl who had developed epilepsy at the age of 4 months. The patient experienced unknown onset, tonic-clonic seizures that occurred in clusters several times a week. Her interictal EEG at the age of 2 years showed paroxysmal, generalized, high-amplitude slow waves, whereas epileptiform discharges were scarce. The patient’s interictal EEG gradually deteriorated; at the age of 11 years, diffuse continuous spike-and-wave discharges were predominantly observed in the left temporal region and were particularly obvious in the awake state. Although the unknown onset, tonic seizures occurring weekly persisted under multiple antiepileptic medications, the patient did not experience seizure clustering since the age of 9 years. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a de novo known nonsense variant in SMC1A (c.2923C > T, p.R975*).


      Our patient presented with a mild abnormality in the interictal EEG during infancy and early childhood despite frequent seizure clustering. Notably, the patient’s EEG findings gradually deteriorated over time, which was inconsistent with the amelioration of seizure clustering.


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