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Long-term follow-up of a patient with autosomal dominant lower extremity-predominant spinal muscular atrophy-2 due to a BICD2 variant

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Bicaudal D homolog 2 (BICD2) is a causative gene of autosomal-dominant lower extremity-predominant spinal muscular atrophy-2 (SMA-LED2). The severity of SMA-LED2 varies widely, ranging from cases in which patients are able to walk to cases in which severe joint contractures lead to respiratory failure. In this study, we report the long-term course of a case of SMA-LED2 in comparison with previous reports.

      Case report

      The patient was a 19-year-old woman. She had knee and hip dislocations with contractures, femoral fracture, and talipes calcaneovalgus since birth, and was diagnosed with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Intense respiratory support was not needed during the neonatal period. She had aspiration pneumonia repeatedly, necessitating NICU admission until 8 months of age. She achieved head control at 9 months of age and was able to sit at 2 years of age; however, she could not walk. Tube feeding was required until 3 years of age. At present, she can eat orally, move around with a wheelchair, and write words by herself. She needs non-invasive positive pressure ventilation during sleep because of a restrictive respiratory disorder during adolescence. Exome analysis identified a de novo heterozygous missense variant (c.2320G>A; p.Glu774Lys) in BICD2.

      Conclusion

      Patients with SMA-LED2 may have a relatively better prognosis in terms of social activities in comparison with the dysfunction in the neonatal period. Moreover, it is important to periodically evaluate respiratory function in patients with SMA-LED2 because respiratory dysfunction may occur during adolescence.

      Keywords

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