We aimed to evaluate choice and efficacy of intravenous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for status epilepticus (SE) in Dravet syndrome and to find predictable clinical features demonstrating the effectiveness of benzodiazepine (BZD) for SE.
We retrospectively investigated the medical records in patients with Dravet syndrome and evaluated the effectiveness rate of intravenous AEDs and the rate of adverse effects. To find the clinical features of BZD-effective SE, we divided the SE episodes into the following two groups: BZD effective group and BZD non-effective group. The choice of treatment was dependent on physicians’ discretion according to the protocol for SE in our institution.
Sixty-eight SE episodes in 10 patients were assessed. The median age at SE was 31 months. Of 68 episodes, 42 episodes (61.8%) were in the BZD effective group and 26 (38.2%) in the BZD non-effective group. There were no significant differences in clinical features. In the BZD non-effective group, the effective rates of continuous midazolam, phenobarbital, phenytoin/fosphenytoin were 9/9 episodes (100%), 14/17 (82.4%), and 2/5 (40.0%), respectively. Adverse effects were identified in 19/68 episodes (27.9%), including 11/42 episodes in the BZD effective group and 8/26 in the BZD non-effective group, which was no statistical difference between the two groups. Respiratory suppression was found in all 19 episodes and the incidence of endotracheal intubation in the BZD non-effective group (15.4%) was higher than that in the BZD effective group (2.4%) (p = 0.046).
BZD may be used as first choice, and phenobarbital prior to continuous midazolam as second choice for SE with Dravet syndrome. There might be no predictable clinical features showing that BZD will be effective.
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Published online: February 01, 2022
Accepted: January 16, 2022
Received in revised form: December 28, 2021
Received: June 19, 2021
© 2022 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.