Original article| Volume 41, ISSUE 6, P501-506, June 2019

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Expert consensus on pharmacotherapy for tic disorders in Japan

Published:February 19, 2019DOI:



      We aimed to clarify the current status of pharmacotherapy for tic disorders and comorbidities in Japan. We used a systematic survey to collate the consensus of Japanese experts and compare it with the recent international evidence.


      We devised a questionnaire on pharmacotherapy for tics and comorbidities and sent it to Japanese experts on tic disorders. Based on the response to the first survey, we revised the questionnaire and conducted a second survey to determine the consensus among the experts on a 4-point Likert scale by the Delphi method.


      The first survey revealed variability in preferred medications and dosages among the experts in Japan. However, we were able to build a general consensus on pharmacotherapy for tic disorders and comorbidities based on the second survey. Aripiprazole and risperidone were the first- and second-line medication for tic disorders, respectively. Agonists of α-2 adrenergic receptors were seldom prescribed. Fluvoxamine was the first-line medication for comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder, and atomoxetine for comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.


      This study will help Japanese physicians choose medications for tic disorders more judiciously and will improve the quality of tic pharmacotherapy in Japan.


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