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Anatomical, animal, and cellular evidence for Zika-induced pathogenesis of fetal microcephaly

  • Jing-Zhang Wang
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Medical Technology, College of Medicine, Affiliated Hospital, Hebei University of Engineering, 81 or 83 Cong Tai Road, Handan 056002, Hebei Province, PR China. Fax: +86 0310 8575130.
    Affiliations
    Hebei University of Engineering, Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Handan 056002, Hebei Province, PR China
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  • Xin-Hua Guo
    Affiliations
    Hebei University of Engineering, Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Handan 056002, Hebei Province, PR China
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  • Dian-Guo Xu
    Affiliations
    Hebei University of Engineering, Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Handan 056002, Hebei Province, PR China
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Published:November 19, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2016.10.012

      Abstract

      Several recent articles published by Brain and Development in 2016 demonstrated some rare, but innovative, genetic mechanisms for microcephaly. This concise mini-review presented another novel pathogenic mechanism for microcephaly, which has actually been a worldwide medical challenge since the World Health Organization (WHO) defined the outbreak of the Zika virus (ZIKV) as an International Public Health Emergency on 1 Feb, 2016. As a recent noteworthy clinical phenomenon, the ZIKV outbreak was accompanied by a dramatically increased number of microcephalus fetuses. However, no direct evidence supporting the suspected pathogenic effects of ZIKV on fetal microcephaly was shown previously before 2016. Herein, we evaluated the most important human pathological, animal developmental, and neuro-cytotoxic findings released in 2016, and highlighted the original experimental evidence that strengthens the potential link between ZIKV and the high incidence of microcephaly in new-born babies. Because killing mosquitoes via insecticides is currently the only effective way to suppress ZIKV-induced disorders, the animal and cellular models described in this mini-review are very beneficial to anti-ZIKV drug development and vaccine assessment.

      Abbreviations:

      ZIKV (the Zika virus), CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), IFN (interferon)

      Keywords

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