Advertisement

Trends in the prevalence of cerebral palsy in children born between 1988 and 2007 in Okinawa, Japan

      Abstract

      Aim

      This study aimed to describe trends in CP prevalence among children born between 1988 and 2007 in Okinawa, Japan.

      Method

      This study was conducted during two time periods, Period I (from 1988 to 1997) and Period II (from 1998 to 2007), using data from the local CP registration system. We assessed cerebral palsy gestational age and birth weight specific trends in prevalence and analyzed these with Poisson regression analysis.

      Results

      Overall crude CP prevalence was 1.88 per 1000 live births. Approximately 70% of children with CP were born preterm or with low birth weight (LBW).
      Overall CP prevalence increased in Period I and decreased significantly in Period II (P < 0.05). Additionally, CP prevalence among children born with a birth weight between 1000 and 1999 g increased in Period I and decreased significantly in Period II (P < 0.05). A significant decrease was found among the children born between 1995 and 2007 with a gestational age between 28 and 31 weeks (P < 0.01).

      Conclusions

      There was a decrease in CP prevalence from 1998 to 2007, especially among LBW children and preterm infants. The high CP proportions among LBW and preterm infants are unique features of the population of Okinawa, Japan.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Brain and Development
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Touyama M.
        • Touyama J.
        • Ochiai Y.
        • Toyokawa S.
        • Kobayashi Y.
        Long-term survival of children with cerebral palsy in Okinawa, Japan.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013; 55: 459-463
        • Cans C.
        • SCPE Collaborative Group
        Surveillance of cerebral palsy in Europe: a collaboration of cerebral palsy surveys and registers.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2000; 42: 816-824
        • Oskoui M.
        • Joseph L.
        • Dagenais L.
        • Shevell M.
        Prevalence of cerebral palsy in Quebec: alternative approaches.
        Neuroepidemiology. 2013; 40: 264-268
        • Reid S.M.
        • Carin J.B.
        • Reddihough D.S.
        Rates of cerebral palsy in Victoria, Australia, 1970–2004: has there been a change?.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2011; 53: 907-912
        • Himmelmann K.
        • Hagberg G.
        • Uvebrant P.
        The changing panorama of cerebral palsy in Sweden. X. Prevalence and origin in the birth-year period 1999–2002.
        Acta Paediatr. 2010; 99: 1337-1343
        • Himmelmann K.
        • Hagberg G.
        • Beckung E.
        • Hagberg B.
        • Uvebrant P.
        The changing panorama of cerebral palsy in Sweden. IX. Prevalence and origin in the birth-year period 1995–1998.
        Acta Paediatr. 2005; 94: 287-294
        • Ravn S.H.
        • Flachs E.M.
        • Uldall P.
        Cerebral palsy in eastern Denmark: declining birth prevalence but increasing numbers of unilateral cerebral palsy in birth year period 1986–1998.
        Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2010; 14: 214-218
        • Sigurdardottir S.
        • Thorkelsson T.
        • Halldorsdottir M.
        • Thorarensen O.
        • Vik T.
        Trends in prevalence and characteristics of cerebral palsy among Icelandic children born 1990–2003.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009; 51: 356-363
        • Stanley F.J.
        • Watson L.
        Trends in perinatal mortality and cerebral palsy in Western Australia, 1967–1985.
        BMJ. 1992; 304: 1658-1663
        • Watson L.
        • Blair E.
        • Stanley F.
        Reports of the Western Australia cerebral palsy register.
        Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, West Perth2006
        • Winter S.
        • Autry A.
        • Boyle C.
        • Yeargin-Allsopp M.
        Trends in prevalence of cerebral palsy in population-based study.
        Pediatrics. 2002; 110: 1220-1225
        • Touyama M.
        • Ochiai Y.
        • Touyama J.
        Cerebral palsy in twins in Okinawa.
        No To Hattatsu. 2000; 32 ([in Japanese]): 35-38
        • Touyama M.
        • Touyama J.
        Prevalence of cerebral palsy in Okinawa between 1995 and 2001.
        No To Hattatsu. 2008; 40 ([in Japanese]): 387-392
        • Suzuki J.
        • Ito M.
        Incidence patterns of cerebral palsy in Shiga Prefecture, Japan, 1977–1991.
        Brain Dev. 2002; 24: 39-48
        • Suzuki J.
        • Miyajima T.
        • Ito M.
        Epidemiological study of cerebral palsy in Shiga Prefecture, Japan, during 1977–2000 Part 1: Incidence pattern of cerebral palsy in Shiga Prefecture with reference to birth weight and gestational age.
        No To Hattatsu. 2009; 41 ([in Japanese]): 279-283
        • Bax M.
        • Goldstein M.
        • Rosenbaum P.
        • Leviton A.
        • Paneth N.
        • Dan B.
        • et al.
        Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy. April 2005.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2005; 47: 571-576
        • Selvin S.
        Statistical tools for epidemiologic research.
        Oxford University Press, New York2011: 269
        • Oskoui M.
        • Coutinho F.
        • Dykeman J.
        • Jette N.
        • Preingsheim T.
        An update on the prevalence of cerebral palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013; 55: 509-519
        • Koterazawa K.
        • Okada Y.
        • Miyata H.
        Incidence of cerebral palsy in Himeji over a 25-year period.
        No To Hattatsu. 2016; 48 ([in Japanese]): 14-19
        • Hokama T.
        • Binns C.
        Trends in the prevalence of low birth weight in Okinawa, Japan: a public health perspective.
        Acta Paediatr. 2009; 98: 242-246
        • Kusuda S.
        • Fujumura M.
        • Sakuma I.
        • Aotani H.
        • Kabe K.
        • Itani Y.
        • et al.
        Morbidity and mortality of infants with very low birth weight in Japan: center variation.
        Pediatrics. 2006; 118: e1130-e1138
        • Itabashi K.
        • Horiuchi T.
        • Kusuda S.
        • Kabe K.
        • Itani Y.
        • Nakamura T.
        • et al.
        Mortality rate for extremely low birth weight infants born in Japan in 2005.
        Pediatrics. 2009; 123: 445-450
        • Hamrick S.E.G.
        • Miller S.P.
        • Leonard C.
        • Glidden D.V.
        • Goldstein R.
        • Ramaswamy V.
        • et al.
        Trends in severe brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcome in premature newborn infants: the role of cystic periventricular leukomalacia.
        J Pediatr. 2004; 145: 593-599
        • Platt M.J.
        • Cans C.
        • Johnson A.
        • Surman G.
        • Topp M.
        • Torrioli M.G.
        • et al.
        Trends in cerebral palsy among infants of very low birthweight (<1500 g) or born prematurely (<32 weeks) in 16 European centres: a database study.
        Lancet. 2007; 369: 43-50
        • Wilson-Costello D.
        • Friedman H.
        • Minich N.
        • Siner B.
        • Taylor G.
        • Schluchter M.
        • et al.
        Improved neurodevelopmental outcomes for extremely low birth weight infants in 2000–2002.
        Pediatrics. 2007; 119: 37-45
        • Vincer M.J.
        • Allen A.C.
        • Joseph K.S.
        • Stinson D.A.
        • Scott H.
        • Wood E.
        Increasing prevalence of cerebral palsy among very preterm infants: a population-based study.
        Pediatrics. 2006; 118: e1621-e1626
        • Tommiska V.
        • Heinonen K.
        • Lehtonen L.
        • Renlund M.
        • Saarela T.
        • Tammela O.
        • et al.
        No improvement in outcome of nationwide extremely low birth weight infant populations between 1966–1997 and 1999–2000.
        Pediatrics. 2007; 119: 29-36
        • Pignotti M.S.
        • Donzelli G.
        Perinatal care at the threshold of viability: an international comparison of practical guidelines for the treatment of extremely preterm births.
        Pediatrics. 2008; 121: e193-e198
        • Seller E.
        • Surman G.
        • Himmelman K.
        • Anderson G.
        • Colver A.
        • Krageloh-mann I.
        • et al.
        Trends in prevalence of cerebral palsy in children born with a birthweight of 2500 g or over in Europe from 1980 to 1998.
        Eur J Epidemiol. 2010; 25: 635-642
        • Wu Y.W.
        • Croen L.A.
        • Shah S.J.
        • Newman T.B.
        • Najjar D.V.
        Cerebral palsy in a term population: risk factors and neuroimaging findings.
        Pediatrics. 2006; 118: 690-697
        • Bax M.
        • Tydeman C.
        • Flodmark O.
        Clinical and MRI correlates of cerebral palsy. European cerebral palsy study.
        JAMA. 2006; 296: 1602-1608
        • Robinson M.N.
        • Peake L.J.
        • Ditchfield M.R.
        • Reid S.M.
        • Lanigan A.
        • Reddihough D.S.
        Magnetic resonance imaging findings in a population-based cohort of children with cerebral palsy.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009; 51: 39-45
      1. Japan Council for Quality Health Care (JCQHC). Guide to the Japan obstetric compensation system for cerebral palsy, explanatory leaflet. <http://www.sanka-hp.jcqhc.or.jp/pdf/bira_english_color201109.pdf> [in English].