We tested for associations of bedtime, sleep duration, instant messaging, and chronic headaches with hypersomnolence and academic performance in a sample of high school students in New Jersey, USA.
Students were surveyed anonymously and asked to report their sleep and messaging habits, headache status, and overall grades.
We found that greater hypersomnolence was associated with later bedtimes, shorter sleep durations, and the presence of chronic headaches, but not with messaging after lights out. Also, we found that academic performance was lower in students who messaged after lights out, but it was not affected by headache status, bedtime, or sleep duration.
These results are consistent with other studies that have demonstrated associations between headaches and hypersomnolence and between instant messaging habits and academic performance. They also add to a growing literature on the relationships among use of electronic devices, sleep health, and academic performance by adolescents.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Brain and Development
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Functional consequences of inadequate sleep in adolescents: a systematic review.Sleep Med Rev. 2014; 18: 75-87
National Sleep Foundation. Summary of findings. Sleep in America Poll; 2006.
- The effects of bedtime and sleep duration on academic and emotional outcomes in a nationally representative sample of adolescents.J Adolesc Health. 2014; 54: 350-356
- Prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal hours of sleep among high school students – United States, 2007.J Adolesc Health. 2010; 46: 399-401
- Time in bed, quality of sleep and school functioning of children.J Sleep Res. 2000; 9: 145-153
- Understanding adolescents’ sleep patterns and school performance: a critical appraisal.Sleep Med Rev. 2003; 7: 491-506
- Sleep insufficiency, sleep health problems and performance in high school students.Clin Med Insights Circ Respir Pulm Med. 2011; 5: 71-79
- Late bedtimes weaken school performance and predispose adolescents to health hazards.Sleep Med. 2013; 14: 1105-1111
- Sleep deprivation: impact on cognitive performance.Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2007; 3: 553-567
- Sleep loss, learning capacity and academic performance.Sleep Med Rev. 2006; 10: 323-337
- Immediate as well as delayed post learning sleep but not wakefulness enhances declarative memory consolidation in children.Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2008; 89: 76-80
- Sleep and memory in healthy children and adolescents – a critical review.Sleep Med Rev. 2010; 14: 167-177
- Generation M2: media in the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds.A Kaiser Family Foundation Study. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, CA2010
- Adolescents living the 24/7 lifestyle: effects of caffeine and technology on sleep duration and daytime functioning.Pediatrics. 2009; 123: e1005-e1010
- Adolescent use of mobile phones for calling and for sending text messages after lights out: results from a prospective cohort study with a one-year follow-up.Sleep. 2007; 30: 1220-1223
- The association between use of mobile phones after lights out and sleep disturbances among Japanese adolescents: a nationwide cross-sectional survey.Sleep. 2011; 34: 1013-1020
- The suicidal feelings, self-injury, and mobile phone use after lights out in adolescents.J Pediatr Psychol. 2012; 37: 1023-1030
- Distractions, distractions: does instant messaging affect college students’ performance on a concurrent reading comprehension task?.Cyberpsychol Behav. 2009; 12: 51-53
- The impact of light from computer monitors on melatonin levels in college students.Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2011; 32: 158-163
- Light level and duration of exposure determine the impact of self-luminous tablets on melatonin suppression.Appl Ergon. 2013; 44: 237-240
- Sleep features and central sensitization symptoms in primary headache patients.J Headache Pain. 2014; 15: 64
- Excessive daytime sleepiness in migraine patients.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005; 76: 1467-1468
- Headaches and academic performance in university students: a cross-sectional study.Headache. 2011; 51: 1493-1502
- The impact of migraine on school performance.Neurology. 2012; 79: e168-e169
- Headaches, quality of life, and academic performance in schoolchildren and adolescents.Headache. 2014; 54: 1194-1202
- Stress and sleep duration predict headache severity in chronic headache sufferers.Pain. 2012; 153: 2432-2440
- Behavioral sleep modification may revert transformed migraine to episodic migraine.Headache. 2007; 47: 1178-1183
- Prevalence of headache among handheld cellular telephone users in Singapore: a community study.Environ Health Perspect. 2000; 108: 1059-1062
- Symptoms experienced in connection with mobile phone use.Occup Med (Lond). 2000; 50: 237-245
- Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population.Saudi Med J. 2004; 25: 732-736
- Melatonin in antinociception: its therapeutic applications.Curr Neuropharmacol. 2012; 10: 167-178
- Psychometric evaluation of the Stanford Sleepiness Scale.J Sleep Res. 1992; 1: 35-39
- The Epworth Sleepiness Scale may not reflect objective measures of sleepiness or sleep apnea.Neurology. 1999; 52: 125-131
- Biometry.3rd ed. W.H. Freeman & Co., New York1995
- Screen media usage, sleep time and academic performance in adolescents: clustering a self-organizing maps analysis.PLoS One. 2014; 9: e99478
- Relationships between the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and clinical/polysomnographic measures in a community sample.J Clin Sleep Med. 2008; 4: 563-571
- Instant messaging addiction among teenagers in China: shyness, alienation, and academic performance decrement.Cyberpsychol Behav. 2009; 12: 675-679
- High school grade inflation from 1991 to 2003.ACT Research Report Series 2004–4. ACT, Inc., Iowa2004
Published online: December 28, 2015
Accepted: December 14, 2015
Received in revised form: November 5, 2015
Received: September 18, 2015
© 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.