Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies involve normalization so that the brains of different subjects can be described using the same coordinate system. However, standard brain templates, including the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) template that is most frequently used at present, were created based on the brains of Western adults. Because morphological characteristics of the brain differ by race and ethnicity and between adults and children, errors are likely to occur when data from the brains of non-Western individuals are processed using these templates. Therefore, this study was conducted to collect basic data for the creation of a Japanese pediatric standard brain. Participants in this study were 45 healthy children (contributing 65 brain images) between the ages of 6 and 9 years, who had nothing notable in their perinatal and other histories and neurological findings, had normal physical findings and cognitive function, exhibited no behavioral abnormalities, and provided analyzable MR images. 3D-T1-weighted images were obtained using a 1.5-T MRI device, and images from each child were adjusted to the reference image by affine transformation using SPM8. The lengths were measured and compared with those of the MNI template. The Western adult standard brain and the Japanese pediatric standard brain obtained in this study differed greatly in size, particularly along the anteroposterior diameter and in height, suggesting that the correction rates are high, and that errors are likely to occur in the normalization of pediatric brain images. We propose that the use of the Japanese pediatric standard brain created in this study will improve the accuracy of identification of brain regions in functional brain imaging studies involving children.
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Published online: June 06, 2012
Accepted: April 30, 2012
Received in revised form: April 23, 2012
Received: June 24, 2011
© 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.