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A study of the standard brain in Japanese children: Morphological comparison with the MNI template

  • Hitoshi T. Uchiyama
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Regional Education, Faculty of Regional Sciences, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori, Tottori 680-8551, Japan. Tel./fax: +81 857 315958.
    Affiliations
    Department of Regional Education, Faculty of Regional Sciences, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori, Tottori 680-8551, Japan

    Department of Clinical Research, Tottori Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 876 Mitsu, Tottori, Tottori 689-0203, Japan

    Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kojimachi-Square 5F, 2-3 Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 102-0084, Japan
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  • Ayumi Seki
    Affiliations
    Department of Regional Education, Faculty of Regional Sciences, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori, Tottori 680-8551, Japan

    Department of Clinical Research, Tottori Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 876 Mitsu, Tottori, Tottori 689-0203, Japan

    Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kojimachi-Square 5F, 2-3 Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 102-0084, Japan
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  • Daisuke Tanaka
    Affiliations
    Department of Regional Education, Faculty of Regional Sciences, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori, Tottori 680-8551, Japan

    Department of Clinical Research, Tottori Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 876 Mitsu, Tottori, Tottori 689-0203, Japan

    Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kojimachi-Square 5F, 2-3 Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 102-0084, Japan
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  • Tatsuya Koeda
    Affiliations
    Department of Regional Education, Faculty of Regional Sciences, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori, Tottori 680-8551, Japan

    Department of Clinical Research, Tottori Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 876 Mitsu, Tottori, Tottori 689-0203, Japan

    Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kojimachi-Square 5F, 2-3 Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 102-0084, Japan
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  • JCS group
    Affiliations
    Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kojimachi-Square 5F, 2-3 Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 102-0084, Japan
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      Abstract

      Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies involve normalization so that the brains of different subjects can be described using the same coordinate system. However, standard brain templates, including the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) template that is most frequently used at present, were created based on the brains of Western adults. Because morphological characteristics of the brain differ by race and ethnicity and between adults and children, errors are likely to occur when data from the brains of non-Western individuals are processed using these templates. Therefore, this study was conducted to collect basic data for the creation of a Japanese pediatric standard brain. Participants in this study were 45 healthy children (contributing 65 brain images) between the ages of 6 and 9 years, who had nothing notable in their perinatal and other histories and neurological findings, had normal physical findings and cognitive function, exhibited no behavioral abnormalities, and provided analyzable MR images. 3D-T1-weighted images were obtained using a 1.5-T MRI device, and images from each child were adjusted to the reference image by affine transformation using SPM8. The lengths were measured and compared with those of the MNI template. The Western adult standard brain and the Japanese pediatric standard brain obtained in this study differed greatly in size, particularly along the anteroposterior diameter and in height, suggesting that the correction rates are high, and that errors are likely to occur in the normalization of pediatric brain images. We propose that the use of the Japanese pediatric standard brain created in this study will improve the accuracy of identification of brain regions in functional brain imaging studies involving children.

      Keywords

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