Original article| Volume 34, ISSUE 5, P337-343, May 2012

Epidemiology of acute encephalopathy in Japan, with emphasis on the association of viruses and syndromes

Published:September 19, 2011DOI:


      A research committee supported by the Japanese government conducted a nationwide survey on the epidemiology of acute encephalopathy in Japan using a questionnaire. A total of 983 cases reportedly had acute encephalopathy during the past 3 years, 2007–2010. Among the pathogens of the preceding infection, influenza virus was the most common, followed by human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and rotavirus. Among syndromes of acute encephalopathy, acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) was the most frequent, followed by clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS), acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) and hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES). Influenza virus was strongly associated with ANE and MERS, HHV-6 with AESD, and rotavirus with MERS. Mortality was high in ANE and HSES, but was low in AESD, MERS and HHV-6-associated encephalopathy. Neurologic sequelae were common in AESD and ANE, but were absent in MERS.


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