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Assessment of local changes of cerebral perfusion and blood concentration by near infrared spectroscopy and ultrasound contrast densitometry

      Abstract

      The objective of this study is to correlate regional cerebral blood concentration measurements made with near infrared spectroscopy to simultaneous local measurements of ultrasound contrast agent (CA) densitometry. Experiments were performed with piglets (7 kg) under general anesthesia. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) were changed by inducing various degrees of hypercapnia. NIRS measurements were performed with a quasi-continuous wave system, using an optode distance of 3–6 cm. The concentration changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and their sum and difference (cO2Hb, cHHb, ctHb, cHbD) were continuously calculated. Ultrasound contrast agent (SF6) was administered as a short intra-venous bolus. Ultrasound equipment was used in pulse inversion second harmonic gray scale imaging mode at low transmit power setting. Three regions-of-interest (0.25 cm2) were analyzed in each image. Wash-in curves were constructed as spatial mean gray level vs. time. The variables collected with both methods changed according to the induced changes in the physiological condition. Changes in the PaCO2, pH and carotid flow induced highly correlated changes in cO2Hb, cHHb, ctHb and cHbD, and in the variables derived from CA analyses. NIRS and CA methods measure regional, respectively, local changes in CBV and CBF. Moreover, NIRS can yield complementary information about the cerebral oxygenation.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      AUTC (area-under-the-curve of contrast wash-in curve), CA (contrast agent), cHbD (difference between concentration of O2Hb and HHb), cHHb (concentration deoxygenated hemoglobine), cO2Hb (concentration oxygenated hemoglobine), CO (cardiac output), ctHb (total concentration hemogolbine), CBF(I) (cerebral blood flow (index)), CBV(I) (cerebral blood volume (index)), CV (circulating (blood) volume), EEG (electroencephalography), GLp (gray level peak value of contrast wash-in curve), HR (heart rate), MI (mechanical index of ultrasound equipment), MABP (Mean arterial blood pressure), NICU (neonatal intensive care unit), NIRS (near infrared spectroscopy), PaCO2 (arterial CO2 pressure), PaO2 (arterial O2 pressure), Qcar (carotid artery blood volume flow), ROI (region-of-interest), SaO2 (arterial O2 saturation), USL (up slope of contrast wash-in curve)
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