Advertisement

Regional cerebral blood flow in children with ADHD: changes with age

      Abstract

      The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with age in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty-nine drug-naive ADHD subjects (24 boys, 5 girls; age 7–13; mean±SD=age 9.2±2.1) and 12 subjects with epilepsy (all diagnosed as having complex partial seizure, 6 boys, 6 girls; age 7–14; mean±SD=8.5±2.1) were included in the study. All cases of ADHD were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Cerebral blood flow was evaluated with Tc-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (Tc99m HMPAO) brain single photon emission tomography (SPECT) during standard resting condition in all of the cases. Asymmetry indices for each region of interest were calculated. Absolute rCBF values were normalized as the absolute rCBF values divided by the whole brain absolute value. The prefrontal lobe asymmetry indices were significantly negatively correlated with age in ADHD cases (r=−0.408, P=0.025), which indicated the increased prefrontal rCBF lateralization from the right to the left side with age. When ADHD cases older than 7 years of age were compared with those with epilepsy, the ADHD cases had lower right prefrontal and frontal rCBF and higher left parietal rCBF. The epilepsy group showed no significant correlations between age and asymmetry indices and showed a different developmental trajectory for prefrontal asymmetry and right prefrontal rCBF values. The results indicated that the left hemisphere dominance in the prefrontal cortex significantly increases with age in ADHD cases.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Brain and Development
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Seidman L.J.
        • Biederman J.
        • Faraone S.V.
        • Weber W.
        • Ouellette C.
        Toward defining a neuropsychology of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: performance of children and adolescents from a large clinically referred sample.
        J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997; 65: 150-160
        • Castellanos F.X.
        • Giedd J.N.
        • Marsh W.L.
        • Hamburger S.D.
        • Vaituzis A.C.
        • Dickstein D.P.
        • et al.
        Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996; 53: 607-616
        • Filipek P.A.
        • Semrud-Clikeman M.
        • Steingard R.J.
        • Renshaw P.F.
        • Kennedy D.N.
        • Biederman J.
        Volumetric MRI analysis comparing subjects having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal controls.
        Neurology. 1997; 48: 589-601
        • Casey B.J.
        • Castellanos F.X.
        • Giedd J.N.
        • Marsh W.L.
        • Hamburger S.D.
        • Schubert A.B.
        • et al.
        Implication of right frontostriatal circuitry in response inhibition and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997; 36: 374-383
        • Berquin P.C.
        • Giedd J.N.
        • Jacobsen L.K.
        • Hamburger S.D.
        • Krain A.L.
        • Rapoport J.L.
        • et al.
        Cerebellum in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a morphometric MRI study.
        Neurology. 1998; 50: 1087-1093
        • Castellanos F.X.
        • Lee P.P.
        • Sharp W.
        • Jeffries N.O.
        • Greenstein D.K.
        • Clasen L.S.
        • et al.
        Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
        J Am Med Assoc. 2002; 288: 1740-1748
        • Mostofsky S.H.
        • Reiss A.L.
        • Lockhart P.
        • Denckla M.B.
        Evaluation of cerebellar size in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
        J Child Neurol. 1998; 13: 434-439
        • Zametkin A.J.
        • Nordahl T.E.
        • Gross M.E.
        • King A.C.
        • Semple W.E.
        • Rumsey J.
        • et al.
        Cerebral glucose metabolism in adults with hyperactivity of childhood onset.
        N Engl J Med. 1990; 323: 1361-1366
        • Zametkin A.J.
        • Liebenauer L.L.
        • Fitzgerald G.A.
        • King A.C.
        • Minkunas D.V.
        • Herscovitch P.
        • et al.
        Brain metabolism in teenagers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993; 50: 333-340
        • Lou H.
        • Edvinsson L.
        • MacKenzie E.T.
        The concept of coupling blood flow to brain function: revision required?.
        Ann Neurol. 1987; 22: 289-297
        • Lou H.
        • Henriksen L.
        • Bruhn P.
        Focal cerebral dysfunction in developmental learning disabilities.
        Lancet. 1990; 335: 8-11
        • Sieg K.G.
        • Gaffney G.R.
        • Preston D.F.
        • Hellings J.A.
        SPECT brain imaging abnormalities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
        Clin Nucl Med. 1995; 20: 55-60
        • Brandeis D.
        • van Leeuwen T.H.
        • Rubia K.
        • Vitacco D.
        • Steger J.
        • Pascual-Marqui R.D.
        • et al.
        Neuroelectric mapping reveals precursor of stop failures in children with attention deficits.
        Behav Brain Res. 1998; 94: 111-125
        • Bush G.
        • Frazier J.A.
        • Rauch S.L.
        • Seidman L.J.
        • Whalen P.J.
        • Jenike M.A.
        • et al.
        Anterior cingulate cortex dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder revealed by fMRI and the Counting Stroop.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1999; 45: 1542-1552
        • Rubia K.
        • Overmeyer S.
        • Taylor E.
        • Brammer M.
        • Williams S.C.
        • Simmons A.
        • et al.
        Hypofrontality in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during higher-order motor control: a study with functional MRI.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1999; 156: 891-896
        • Vaidya C.J.
        • Austin G.
        • Kirkorian G.
        • Ridlehuber H.W.
        • Desmond J.E.
        • Glover G.H.
        • et al.
        Selective effects of methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance study.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1998; : 14494-14499
        • Castellanos F.X.
        Toward a pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactvity disorder.
        Clin Pediatr. 1997; 36: 381-393
        • Giedd J.N.
        • Snell J.W.
        • Lange N.
        • Rajapakse J.C.
        • Casey B.J.
        • Kozuch P.L.
        • et al.
        Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of human brain development: ages, 4–18.
        Cereb Cortex. 1996; 6: 551-560
        • Giedd J.N.
        • Vaituzis A.C.
        • Hamburger S.D.
        • Lange N.
        • Rajapakse J.C.
        • Kaysen D.
        • et al.
        Quantitative MRI of the temporal lobe, amygdala, and hippocampus in normal human development: ages 4–18 years.
        J Comp Neurol. 1996; 366: 223-230
        • Reiss A.L.
        • Abrams M.T.
        • Singer H.S.
        • Ross J.L.
        • Denckla M.B.
        Brain development, gender and IQ in children. A volumetric imaging study.
        Brain. 1996; 119: 1763-1774
        • Giedd J.N.
        • Blumenthal J.
        • Jeffries N.O.
        • Castellanos F.X.
        • Liu H.
        • Zijdenbos A.
        • et al.
        Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study.
        Nat Neurosci. 1999; 2: 861-863
        • Frazier J.A.
        • Giedd J.N.
        • Hamburger S.D.
        • Albus K.E.
        • Kaysen D.
        • Vaituzis A.C.
        • et al.
        Brain anatomic magnetic resonance imaging in childhood-onset schizophrenia.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996; 53: 617-624
        • Casey B.J.
        • Giedd J.N.
        • Thomas K.M.
        Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development.
        Biol Psychol. 2000; 54: 241-257
        • Bentourkia M.
        • Michel C.
        • Ferriere G.
        • Bol A.
        • Coppens A.
        • Sibomana M.
        • et al.
        Evolution of brain glucose metabolism with age in epileptic infants, children and adolescents.
        Brain Dev. 1998; 20: 524-529
        • Chugani H.T.
        • Phelps M.E.
        • Mazziotta J.C.
        Positron emission tomography study of human brain functional development.
        Ann Neurol. 1987; 22: 487-497
        • Barthel H.
        • Wiener M.
        • Dannenberg C.
        • Bettin S.
        • Sattler B.
        • Knapp W.H.
        Age specific cerebral perfusion in 4 to 15 year old children: a high-resolution brain SPET study using 99mTc-ECD.
        Eur J Nucl Med. 1997; 24: 1245-1252
        • Denckla M.B.
        Revised neurological examination and subtle signs.
        Psychopharmacol Bull. 1985; 21: 773-779
        • Aysev A.
        • Öner Ö.
        • Ibis E.
        • Kucuk O.
        SPECT imaging of ADHD children before and after methylphenidate treatment.
        Presentation in 11th international congress of European society of child and adolescent psychiatry, abstract in congress book. 1999 (p. 223)
        • Öner P.
        • Aysev A.
        • Öner Ö.
        • Küçük Ö.
        • İbis E.
        Exploration of cerebral blood flow of children with obsessive compulsive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a comparative SPECT study.
        2002 ICCAPAP abstract book. 2002 (p. 49)
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.
        4th ed. APA, Washington, DC1994
        • Goyette C.H.
        • Conners C.K.
        • Ulrich R.F.
        Normative data on revised Conners' parent and teacher rating scales.
        J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1978; 6: 221-236
        • O'Tuama L.A.
        • Dickstein D.P.
        • Neeper R.
        • Gascon G.G.
        Functional brain imaging in neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood.
        J Child Neurol. 1999; 14: 207-221
        • Mountz J.M.
        • Zhang B.
        • Liu B.H.
        • Inampudi C.
        A reference method for correlation of anatomic and functional brain images: validation and clinical application.
        Semin Nucl Med. 1994; 24: 256-271
        • Reid H.M.
        • Norvilitis J.M.
        Evidence for anomalous lateralization across domain in ADHD children as well as adults identified with the Wender Utah Rating scale.
        J Psychiatr Res. 2000; 34: 311-316
        • Langleben D.D.
        • Austin G.
        • Krikorian G.
        • Ridlehuber H.W.
        • Goris M.L.
        • Strauss H.W.
        Interhemispheric asymmetry of regional cerebral blood flow in prepubescent boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
        Nucl Med Commun. 2001; 22: 1333-1340
        • Oades R.D.
        Frontal, temporal and lateralized brain function in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a psychophysiological and neuropsychological viewpoint on development.
        Behav Brain Res. 1998; 94: 83-95
        • Weinberger D.R.
        Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987; 44: 660-669
        • Huttenlocher P.R.
        Morphometric study of human cerebral cortex development.
        Neuropsychologia. 1990; 28: 517-527
        • Sowell E.R.
        • Thompson P.M.
        • Tessner K.D.
        • Toga A.W.
        Mapping continued brain growth and gray matter density reduction in dorsal frontal cortex: inverse relationships during postadolescent brain maturation.
        J Neurosci. 2001; 21: 8819-8829
        • Ernst M.
        • Zametkin A.J.
        • Matochik J.A.
        • Jons P.H.
        • Cohen R.M.
        DOPA decarboxylase activity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults. A [Fluorine-18]Fluorodopa positron emission tomographic study.
        J Neurosci. 1998; 18: 5901-5907
        • Spalletta G.
        • Pasini A.
        • Pau F.
        • Guido G.
        • Menghini L.
        • Caltagirone C.
        Prefrontal blood flow dysregulation in drug naive ADHD children without structural abnormalities.
        J Neural Transm. 2001; 108: 1203-1216