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Aicardi syndrome

      Abstract

      Aicardi syndrome (AS) is characterized by a triad of callosal agenesis, infantile spasms and chorioretinal ‘lacunae’. It occurs only in individuals with two X chromosomes and is not familial. The outcome of AS is severe, with a high early mortality, considerable morbidity and a generally poor developmental outcome. However, the spectrum of AS seems broader than previously defined with a small proportion of the affected girls only moderately or mildly retarded. Several novel and important features should be added to the classic triad. The brain malformation is complex with cortical migration abnormalities, often cystic formations and sometimes choroid plexus papillomas; the eye anomalies, often feature a coloboma in addition to the lacunae, and focal seizures rather than spasms, are common. AS has been reported in 2 boys, both with an XXY complement, supporting the hypothesis of an X-linked gene lethal early in pregnancy for male conceptuses. A locus at Xp22.3 has been suggested but has not been confirmed. Treatment is only symptomatic.

      Keywords

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