Serum cytokine levels are altered in patients with West syndrome


      The objective of this study is to explore the neuroimmunomodulator effect of interleukin (IL)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-alpha in West syndrome (WS). Twenty-three cases of WS (13 males and 10 females, aged 4–14 months old) who first visited and consisted from 10 cryptogenic and 13 symptomatic, were enrolled in this study. Double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure serum IL-2, TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha levels in 23 patients with WS and the data were compared to those of 15 healthy infants who were matched with regard to age and sex. Levels of all three cytokines were significantly higher in both cryptogenic and symptomatic WS groups than the control group. Serum IL-2 levels in symptomatic WS were significantly higher than that in cryptogenic WS. There was a positive correlation between IL-2 and TNF-alpha in both cryptogenic and symptomatic WS groups. The immune systems of patients with WS are in an activated state. An imbalance in cytokine levels may be involved in the immunopathology of WS.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Brain and Development
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Baram T.Z
        Pathophysiology of massive infantile spasms: perspective on the putative pole of the brain adrenal axis.
        Ann Neurol. 1993; 33: 231-236
        • Tekgül H
        • Tütüncüoglu S
        • Coker M
        • Coker C
        Infantile spasm: the effect of corticotropin (ACTH) on the free amino acid profile in cerebrospinal fluid.
        Brain Dev. 1999; 21: 20-23
        • Pacifici R
        • Paris L
        • Di Carlo S
        • Bacosi A
        • Pichini S
        • Zuccaro P
        Cytokine production in blood mononuclear cells from epileptic patients.
        Epilepsia. 1995; 36: 384-387
        • Peltola J
        • Palmio J
        • Korhonen L
        • Suhonen J
        • Miettinen A
        • Hurme M
        • et al.
        Interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with recent tonic–clonic seizures.
        Epilepsy Res. 2000; 41: 205-211
        • De Simoni M.G
        • Perego C
        • Ravizza T
        • Moneta D
        • Conti M
        • Marchesi F
        • et al.
        Inflammatory cytokines and related genes are induced in the rat hippocampus by limbic status epilepticus.
        Eur J Neurosci. 2000; 12: 2623-2633
        • Bouma P.A
        Determining the prognosis of childhood epilepsies by establishing immune abnormalities.
        Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 1992; 94: S54-S56
        • Urbanska E.M
        • Kleinrok Z
        Immune response and epilepsy.
        Pol J Pharmacol. 1998; 50: 83-85
        • Aarli J.A
        Epilepsy and the immune system.
        Arch Neurol. 2000; 57: 1689-1692
        • Maroder M
        • Bellavia D
        • Vacca A
        • Felli M.P
        • Screpanti I
        The thymus at the crossroad of neuroimmune interactions.
        Ann NY Acad Sci. 2000; 917: 741-747
        • Swann J.W
        • Smith K.L
        • Gomez C.M
        • Brady R.J
        The ontogeny of hippocampal local circuits and focal epileptogenesis.
        Epilepsy Res. 1992; 9: 115-125
        • Muller N
        • Ackenheil M
        Psychoneuroimmunology and the cytokine action in the CNS: implications for psychiatric disorders.
        Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1998; 22: 1-33
        • Banks W.A
        • Kastin A.J
        • Broadwell R.D
        Passage of cytokines across the blood–brain barrier.
        Neuroimmunomodulation. 1995; 2: 241-248
        • Liu Z.S
        • Yu C.T
        • Yang L.Z
        • Wang F.L
        Clinical and immunological significance of cytokines measurement in serum in patients with infantile epilepsy (in Chinese).
        Chin J Pediatr (Beijing). 2000; 38: 46
        • Yu C.T
        • Liu Z.S
        • Dong Z.Q
        • Xiao S.B
        Variations of serum cytokines and its clinical significance in children with febrile convulsion (in Chinese).
        Chin J Contemporary Pediatr (Hunan). 1999; 1: 84-86
        • De Sarro G
        • Rotiroti D
        • Audino M.G
        • Gratteri S
        • Nistico G
        Effects of interleukin-2 on various models of experimental epilepsy in DBA/2 mice.
        Neuroimmunomodulation. 1994; 1: 361-369
        • Chao C.C
        • Hu S
        Tumor necrosis factor-alpha potentiates glutamate neurotoxicity in human fetal brain cell cultures.
        Dev Neurosci. 1994; 16: 172-179
        • Muller M
        • Fontana A
        • Zbinden G
        • Gahwiler B.H
        Effects of interferons and hydrogen peroxide on CA3 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampal slice cultures.
        Brain Res. 1993; 619: 157-162
        • Nomura L.E
        • Walker J.M
        • Maecker H.T
        Optimization of whole blood antigen-specific cytokine assays for CD4(+) T cells.
        Cytometry. 2000; 40: 60-68
        • Chavanet P
        • Bonnotte B
        • Guiguet M
        • Zeller V
        • Solary E
        • Maurice L
        • et al.
        High concentrations of intrathecal interleukin-6 in human bacterial and nonbacterial meningitis.
        J Infect Dis. 1992; 166: 428-431
      1. Bi A.H Medical immunology (in Chinese). People Military Medical Press, Beijing1996