Original article| Volume 23, ISSUE 1, P34-37, February 2001

Download started.


Gait patterns in children with spastic diplegia and periventricular leukomalacia


      Sequential changes in gait patterns were investigated retrospectively by analyzing the videotape recordings of 20 children with spastic diplegia and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). The subjects began to walk at 1–5 years of age, and their walking was examined to 6–16 years of age. Many of the ambulatory children with spastic diplegia walked with flexed hips, knees and ankles. At the final walking examination, the knee was flexed during the stance phase in both legs and in all cases. In addition, the ankle was over-plantarflexed during the stance phase in nine cases or 14 legs, and dorsiflexed in 15 cases or 26 legs. At the initial walking, the knee was over-extended during the stance phase in seven cases or 12 legs, and was flexed in 15 cases or 28 legs. Also, the ankle was over-plantarflexed during the stance phase in 14 cases or 22 legs, and dorsiflexed in ten cases or 18 legs. Bilateral excessive ankle plantarflexion or a recurvatum knee was observed in a portion of the children at the initial phase of walking only. In the diplegic children with PVL, the gait pattern was variable.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Brain and Development
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Bennett F.C.
        • Chandler L.S.
        • Robinson N.M.
        • Sells C.J.
        Spastic diplegia in premature infants. Etiologic and diagnostic considerations.
        Am J Dis Child. 1981; 135: 732-737
        • Badell-Ribera A.
        Cerebral palsy: postural-locomotor prognosis in spastic diplegia.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1985; 66: 614-619
        • Yokochi K.
        • Hosoe A.
        • Shimabukuro S.
        • Kodama K.
        Gross motor patterns in children with cerebral palsy and spastic diplegia.
        Pediatr Neurol. 1990; 6: 245-250
        • Bleck E.E.
        Orthopedic management of cerebral palsy. Clinics in developmental medicine No. 99/100. Mac Keith Press, London1987
        • Rang M.
        Cerebral palsy.
        in: Morrissy R.T. Lovell and Winter's Pedratric Orthopedics. 3rd ed. Lippincott, Philadelphia, Pa1990: 465-506
        • Gage J.R.
        Gait analysis in cerebral palsy. Clinics in developmental medicine No. 121. Mac Keith Press, London1991
        • Sutherland D.H.
        • Davids J.R.
        Common gait abnormalities of the knee in cerebral palsy.
        Clin Orthop. 1993; 288: 139-147
        • Yokochi K.
        • Aiba K.
        • Horie M.
        • Inukai K.
        • Fujimoto S.
        • Kodama M.
        • et al.
        Magnetic resonance imaging in children with spastic diplegia: correlation with the severity of their motor and mental abnormality.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 1991; 33: 18-25
        • Sutherland D.H.
        • Cooper L.
        The pathomechanics of progressive crouch gait in spastic diplegia.
        Orthop Clin North Am. 1978; 9: 143-154
        • Hoffinger S.A.
        • Tab G.T.
        • Abou-Ghaida H.
        Hamstrings in cerebral palsy crouch gait.
        J Pediatr Orthop. 1993; 13: 722-726
        • Johnson D.C.
        • Damiano D.L.
        • Abel M.F.
        The evolution of gait in childhood and adolescent cerebral palsy.
        J Pediatr Orthop. 1997; 17: 392-396
        • Yokochi K.
        Clinical profiles of subjects with subcortical leukomalacia and border-zone infarction revealed by MR.
        Acta Paediatr. 1998; 87: 879-883