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Pseudo-TORCH syndrome or Baraitser–Reardon syndrome: diagnostic criteria

      Abstract

      Intracranial calcification and microcephaly, which represent the main clinical features of the TORCH-syndrome, can also be determined by a rare autosomal recessive infection-like condition named pseudo-TORCH syndrome. This emerging entity has been registered in eight families so far. We report on five patients from three unrelated Italian families affected by pseudo-TORCH syndrome. Reevaluation of literature allowed us to draw a specific clinical profile of the syndrome. Indeed, congenital microcephaly, congenital cerebral calcification, spasticity and seizures are the main clinical features, and have been present in almost all patients reported so far. On the contrary, findings resembling congenital infectious diseases including neonatal icterus, hyperbilirubinemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatomegaly, affect less than half of the patients.Considering the diagnosis of pseudo-TORCH syndrome in patients with neonatal microcephaly and cerebral calcification is necessary since an early diagnosis may allow adequate genetic counseling to the families.

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